Cerebrospinal fluid endocannabinoid levels in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome


  • 1.

    Müller-Vahl KR, Kolbe H, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Cannabinoids: possible role in patho-physiology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998;98:502–6.

  • 2.

    Abi-Jaoude E, Chen L, Cheung P, Bhikram T, Sandor P. Preliminary evidence on cannabis effectiveness and tolerability for adults with Tourette syndrome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017:appineuropsych16110310.

  • 3.

    Jakubovski E, Müller-Vahl K. Speechlessness in Gilles de la Tourette sndrome: cannabis-based medicines improve severe vocal blocking tics in two patients. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18.

  • 4.

    Kanaan AS, Jakubovski E, Müller-Vahl K. Significant tic reduction in an otherwise treatment-resistant patient with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome following treatment with nabiximols. Brain Sci. 2017;7.

  • 5.

    Trainor D, Evans L, Bird R. Severe motor and vocal tics controlled with Sativex®. Australas Psychiatry. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1177/1039856216663737.

  • 6.

    Szejko N, Jakubovski E, Fremer C, Kunert K, Müller-Vahl K. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for the treatment of a child with Tourette syndrome—case report. Eur J Med Case Rep. 2018;2:43–46.

  • 7.

    Hasan A, Rothenberger A, Münchau A, Wobrock T, Falkai P, Roessner V. Oral delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:190–2.

  • 8.

    Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Koblenz A, Jöbges M, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, et al. Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): a randomized crossover trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002;35:57–61.

  • 9.

    Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Prevedel H, Theloe K, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, et al. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64:459–65.

  • 10.

    Fernández-Ruiz J. The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of motor dysfunction. Br J Pharm. 2009;156:1029–40.

  • 11.

    Bindila L, Lutz B. Extraction and simultaneous quantification of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like lipids in biological tissues. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1412:9–18.

  • 12.

    Baumgaertel C, Skripuletz T, Kronenberg J, Stangel M, Schwenkenbecher P, Sinke C, et al. Immunity in Gilles de la Tourette-Syndrome: results from a cerebrospinal fluid study. 2018. In press.

  • 13.

    Leckman JF, Riddle MA, Hardin MT, Ort SI, Swartz KL, Stevenson J, et al. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: initial testing of a clinician-rated scale of tic severity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1989;28:566–73.

  • 14.

    Woods DW, Piacentini J, Himle MB, Chang S. Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS): initial psychometric results and examination of the premonitory urge phenomenon in youths with Tic disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2005;26:397–403.

  • 15.

    Cavanna AE, Schrag A, Morley D, Orth M, Robertson MM, Joyce E, et al. The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome-quality of life scale (GTS-QOL): development and validation. Neurology. 2008;71:1410–6.

  • 16.

    Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1993.

  • 17.

    Conners CK, Erhardt D, Sparrow E. Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) technical manual. 1999.

  • 18.

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Text Revision. American Psychiatric Association; 2004.

  • 19.

    Retz-Junginger P, Retz W, Blocher D, Weijers H-G, Trott G-E, Wender PH, et al. Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-k) Die deutsche Kurzform zur retrospektiven Erfassung des hyperkinetischen Syndroms bei Erwachsenen. Nervenarzt 2002;73:830–8.

  • 20.

    Steer RA, Beck AT. Beck anxiety inventory manual. 1993.

  • 21.

    Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen R. The Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale: I. development, use, and reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:1006–11.

  • 22.

    Franke G. Brief symptom inventory von L. R. Derogatis (Kurzform der SCL-90-R). Göttingen: Beltz. 2000.

  • 23.

    Kranaster L, Hoyer C, Aksay SS, Bumb JM, Leweke FM, Janke C, et al. Electroconvulsive therapy enhances endocannabinoids in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with major depression: a preliminary prospective study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017;267:781–6.

  • 24.

    Lerner R, Lutz B, Bindila L. Tricks and tracks in the identification and quantification of endocannabinoids. eLS, American Cancer Society; 2013.

  • 25.

    Lerner R, Post JM, Ellis SR, Vos DRN, Heeren RMA, Lutz B, et al. Simultaneous lipidomic and transcriptomic profiling in mouse brain punches of acute epileptic seizure model compared to controls. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:283–97.

  • 26.

    Piomelli D. The molecular logic of endocannabinoid signalling. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003;4:873–84.

  • 27.

    García C, Palomo-Garo C, Gómez-Gálvez Y, Fernández-Ruiz J. Cannabinoid-dopamine interactions in the physiology and physiopathology of the basal ganglia. Br J Pharm. 2016;173:2069–79.

  • 28.

    Maccarrone M, Rossi S, Bari M, De Chiara V, Fezza F, Musella A, et al. Anandamide inhibits metabolism and physiological actions of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the striatum. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:152–9.

  • 29.

    Centonze D, Battista N, Rossi S, Mercuri NB, Finazzi-Agrò A, Bernardi G, et al. A critical interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and endocannabinoids mediates the effects of cocaine on striatal gabaergic Transmission. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:1488–97.

  • 30.

    Smart D, Gunthorpe MJ, Jerman JC, Nasir S, Gray J, Muir AI, et al. The endogenous lipid anandamide is a full agonist at the human vanilloid receptor (hVR1). Br J Pharm. 2000;129:227–30.

  • 31.

    de Lago E, de Miguel R, Lastres-Becker I, Ramos JA, Fernández-Ruiz J. Involvement of vanilloid-like receptors in the effects of anandamide on motor behavior and nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity: in vivo and in vitro evidence. Brain Res. 2004;1007:152–9.

  • 32.

    Di Marzo V, Lastres-Becker I, Bisogno T, De Petrocellis L, Milone A, Davis JB, et al. Hypolocomotor effects in rats of capsaicin and two long chain capsaicin homologues. Eur J Pharm. 2001;420:123–31.

  • 33.

    García MC, Cinquina V, Palomo-Garo C, Rábano A, Fernández-Ruiz J. Identification of CB2 receptors in human nigral neurons that degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett. 2015;587:1–4.

  • 34.

    Emerging science. https://www.aan.com/conferences-community/annual-meeting/abstracts-and-awards/emerging-science/. Accessed 12 Aug 2018.

  • 35.

    Singer HS. The neurochemistry of Tourette syndrome. In: Martino D, Leckman JF, editors. Tourette syndrome, New York: Oxford University Press; 2013. p. 276–300.

  • 36.

    Gadzicki D, Müller-Vahl KR, Heller D, Ossege S, Nöthen MM, Hebebrand J, et al. Tourette syndrome is not caused by mutations in the central cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004;127B:97–103.

  • 37.

    Berding G, Müller-Vahl K, Schneider U, Gielow P, Fitschen J, Stuhrmann M, et al. [123I]AM281 single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of central cannabinoid CB1 receptors before and after Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol therapy and whole-body scanning for assessment of radiation dose in Tourette patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:904–15.

  • 38.

    Kano M, Ohno-Shosaku T, Hashimotodani Y, Uchigashima M, Watanabe M. Endocannabinoid-mediated control of synaptic transmission. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:309–80.

  • 39.

    Russo EB. Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency reconsidered: current research supports the theory in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel, and other treatment-resistant syndromes. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2016;1:154–65.

  • 40.

    Pisani V, Moschella V, Bari M, Fezza F, Galati S, Bernardi G, et al. Dynamic changes of anandamide in the cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s disease patients. Mov Disord. 2010;25:920–4.

  • 41.

    Romigi A, Bari M, Placidi F, Marciani MG, Malaponti M, Torelli F, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide are reduced in patients with untreated newly diagnosed temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51:768–72.

  • 42.

    Di Filippo M, Pini LA, Pelliccioli GP, Calabresi P, Sarchielli P. Abnormalities in the cerebrospinal fluid levels of endocannabinoids in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:1224–9.

  • 43.

    Sarchielli P, Pini LA, Coppola F, Rossi C, Baldi A, Mancini ML, et al. Endocannabinoids in chronic migraine: CSF findings suggest a system failure. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:1384–90.

  • 44.

    Neumeister A, Normandin MD, Pietrzak RH, Piomelli D, Zheng M-Q, Gujarro-Anton A, et al. Elevated brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in posttraumatic stress disorder: a positron emission tomography study. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:1034–40.

  • 45.

    Yi B, Nichiporuk I, Nicolas M, Schneider S, Feuerecker M, Vassilieva G, et al. Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in healthy human subjects exposed to chronic stressors. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;67:92–97.

  • 46.

    Hoekstra PJ, Dietrich A, Edwards MJ, Elamin I, Martino D. Environmental factors in Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1040–9.

  • 47.

    Volkow ND, Hampson AJ, Baler RD. Don’t worry, be happy: endocannabinoids and cannabis at the intersection of stress and reward. Annu Rev Pharm Toxicol. 2017;57:285–308.

  • 48.

    Cooper RE, Williams E, Seegobin S, Tye C, Kuntsi J, Asherson P. Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017;27:795–808.

  • 49.

    Centonze D, Bari M, Di Michele B, Rossi S, Gasperi V, Pasini A, et al. Altered anandamide degradation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurology. 2009;72:1526–7.

  • 50.

    Walker LE, Griffiths MJ, McGill F, Lewthwaite P, Sills GJ, Jorgensen A, et al. A comparison of HMGB1 concentrations between cerebrospinal fluid and blood in patients with neurological disease. Biomarkers. 2017;22:635–42.

  • 51.

    Rubino T, Parolaro D. Sexually dimorphic effects of cannabinoid compounds on emotion and cognition. Front Behav Neurosci. 2011;5:64.

  • 52.

    Baumeister D, Eich W, Lerner R, Lutz B, Bindila L, Tesarz J. Plasma parameters of the endocannabinoid system are unaltered in fibromyalgia. Psychother Psychosom. 2018;87:377–9.

  • Source link


    Please enter your comment!
    Please enter your name here