World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th Revision), https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en (2018).
Siegel, L. S. Perspectives on dyslexia. Paediatrics & child health 11, 581–587 (2006).
Turker, S. Exploring the neurofunctional underpinning of developmental dyslexia: a review focusing on dyslexic children in The Talking Species (ed. Marin, M. & Luef, E.) 337–377 (Uni Graz Press, 2018).
Bishop, D. V. M. & Snowling, M. J. Developmental Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different? Psychological Bulletin 130, 858–886 (2004).
Ramus, F., White, S. & Frith, U. Weighing the evidence between competing theories of dyslexia. Developmental Science 9, 265–269 (2006).
Ramus, F. & Szenkovits, G. What Phonological Deficit? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 61, 129–141 (2008).
Schmalz, X., Altoè, G. & Mulatti, C. Statistical learning and dyslexia: A systematic review. Annals of Dyslexia 67(2), 147–162 (2017).
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (American Psychiatric Association, 2017).
Willcutt, E., Doyle, A., Nigg, J., Faraone, S. & Pennington, B. Validity of the Executive Function Theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review. Biological Psychiatry 57, 1336–1346 (2005).
Serrallach, B. et al. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children. Frontiers in Neuroscience 10, https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00324 (2016).
Germanò, E., Gagliano, A. & Curatolo, P. Comorbidity of ADHD and Dyslexia. Developmental Neuropsychology 35, 475–493 (2010).
Willcutt, E., Pennington, B., Olson, R., Chhabildas, N. & Hulslander, J. Neuropsychological Analyses of Comorbidity Between Reading Disability and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: In Search of the Common Deficit. Developmental Neuropsychology 27, 35–78 (2005).
Moura, O. et al. Neurocognitive functioning in children with developmental dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Multiple deficits and diagnostic accuracy. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 39, 296–312 (2017).
Conway, A. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity: More Evidence for a General Capacity Theory. Memory 4, 577–590 (1996).
Baddeley, A. The concept of working memory: A view of its current state and probable future development in Exploring Working Memory: Selected Works of Alan Baddeley (ed. Baddeley, A.) 99–106 (Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2017).
Alloway, T. & Alloway, R. Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 106, 20–29 (2010).
Baddeley, A., Gathercole, S. & Papagno, C. The phonological loop as a language learning device. Psychological Review 105, 158–173 (1998).
Wen, Z., Biedroń, A. & Skehan, P. Foreign language aptitude theory: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Language Teaching 50, 1–31 (2016).
Menon, V. Working memory in children’s math learning and its disruption in dyscalculia. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 10, 125–132 (2016).
Baddeley, A. Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 829–839 (2003).
Wen, Z. Working Memory and Second Language Learning: Towards an Integrated Approach. (Multilingual Matters, 2016).
Dehaene, S. Precis of The Number Sense. Mind and Language 16, 16–36 (2001).
Lyons, I., Price, G., Vaessen, A., Blomert, L. & Ansari, D. Numerical predictors of arithmetic success in grades 1-6. Developmental Science 17, 714–726 (2014).
Adams, J. & Hitch, G. Children’s mental arithmetic and working memory in The Development of Mathematical Skills (ed. Donlan, C.) 153–173 (Psychology Press, 1998).
Andersson, U. & Lyxell, B. Working memory deficit in children with mathematical difficulties: A general or specific deficit? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 96, 197–228 (2007).
Passolunghi, M. & Siegel, L. Working memory and access to numerical information in children with disability in mathematics. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 88, 348–367 (2004).
Moll, K., Göbel, S., Gooch, D., Landerl, K. & Snowling, M. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder. Journal of Learning Disabilities 49, 272–281 (2014).
Schuchardt, K., Maehler, C. & Hasselhorn, M. Working Memory Deficits in Children with Specific Learning Disorders. Journal of Learning Disabilities 41, 514–523 (2008).
Martinussen, R. & Tannock, R. Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with and without Comorbid Language Learning Disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28, 1073–1094 (2006).
Gathercole, S., Alloway, T., Willis, C. & Adams, A. Working memory in children with reading disabilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 93, 265–281 (2006).
Swanson, H. Reading Comprehension and Working Memory in Learning-Disabled Readers: Is the Phonological Loop More Important Than the Executive System? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 72, 1–31 (1999).
Swanson, H., Zheng, X. & Jerman, O. Working Memory, Short-Term Memory, and Reading Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities 42, 260–287 (2009).
Fried, R. et al. Clinical correlates of working memory deficits in youth with and without ADHD: A controlled study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 38, 487–496 (2016).
Kasper, L., Alderson, R. & Hudec, K. Moderators of working memory deficits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review 32, 605–617 (2012).
Martinussen, R., Hayden, J., Hogg-Johnson, S. & Tannock, R. A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American academy of child & adolescent psychiatry 44, 377–384 (2005).
Kofler, M. et al. Do working memory deficits underlie reading problems in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 47, 433–446 (2019).
Plourde, V. et al. Cognitive mechanisms underlying the associations between inattention and reading abilities. Developmental neuropsychology 43, 92–105 (2018).
Sowerby, P., Seal, S. & Tripp, G. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders 15, 461–472 (2010).
Catts, H., Adlof, S., Hogan, T. & Weismer, S. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 48, 1378–1396 (2005).
Chung, K. & Ho, C. Second Language Learning Difficulties in Chinese Children with Dyslexia: What are the Reading-Related Cognitive Skills that Contribute to English and Chinese Word Reading? Journal of Learning Disabilities 43, 195–211 (2009).
Downey, D., Snyder, L. & Hill, B. College students with dyslexia: persistent linguistic deficits and foreign language learning. Dyslexia 6, 101–111 (2000).
Ho, C. & Fong, K. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language? Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 34, 603–618 (2005).
Cohen, N. et al. The Interface between ADHD and Language Impairment: An Examination of Language, Achievement, and Cognitive Processing. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41, 353–362 (2000).
Geurts, H. & Embrechts, M. Language Profiles in ASD, SLI, and ADHD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38, 1931–1943 (2008).
Staikova, E., Gomes, H., Tartter, V., McCabe, A. & Halperin, J. Pragmatic deficits and social impairment in children with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 54, 1275–1283 (2013).
Gut, J., Heckmann, C., Meyer, C., Schmid, M. & Grob, A. Language skills, mathematical thinking, and achievement motivation in children with ADHD, disruptive behavior disorders, and normal controls. Learning and Individual Differences 22, 375–379 (2012).
Lucangeli, D. & Cabrele, S. Mathematical Difficulties and ADHD. Exceptionality 14, 53–62 (2006).
Barry, T., Lyman, R. & Klinger, L. Academic Underachievement and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of School Psychology 40, 259–283 (2002).
Merrell, C. & Tymms, P. Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness: Their impact on academic achievement and progress. British Journal of Educational Psychology 71, 43–56 (2001).
Mayes, S. & Calhoun, S. Learning, Attention, Writing, and Processing Speed in Typical Children and Children with ADHD, Autism, Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder. Child Neuropsychology 13, 469–493 (2007).
Sparks, R., Javorsky, J. & Philips, L. Comparison of the Performance of College Students Classified as ADHD, LD, and LD/ADHD in Foreign Language Courses. Language Learning 55, 151–177 (2005).
Gooch, D., Snowling, M. & Hulme, C. Time perception, phonological skills and executive function in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 52, 195–203 (2010).
Kibby, M. Y. & Cohen, M. J. Memory functioning in children with reading disabilities and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a clinical investigation of their working memory and long-term memory functioning. Child Neuropsychology 14, 525–546 (2008).
Helland, W., Posserud, M., Helland, T., Heimann, M. & Lundervold, A. Lanugage Impairments in Children with AD(H)D and in Children with Reading Disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders 20, 581–589 (2016).
Meara, P. LLAMA Language Aptitude Tests: The Manual. (Lognostics, 2005).
Vogel, S. et al. Processing the order of symbolic numbers: A reliable and unique predictor of arithmetic fluency. Journal of Numerical Cognition 3, 288–308 (2017).
Lenhard, W. & Schneider, W. ELFE 1–6: ein Leseverständnistest für Erst- bis Sechstklässler. (Hogrefe, 2006).
May, P. Hamburger Schreib-Probe 1–10. (Verlag für Pädagogische Medien, 2012).
Brunner, M. et al. Heidelberg Phoneme Discrimination Test (HLAD): Normative Data for Children of the Third Grade and Correlation with Spelling Ability. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 60, 157–161 (2008).
Weiß, R. Grundintelligenztest Skala 2 – Revision. (Hogrefe, Verl. für Psychologie, 2006).
Lehrl, S., Gallwitz, A., Blaha, L. & Fischer, B. Kurztest für Allgemeine Intelligenz. (Vless, 1992).
Rogers, V., Meara, P., Barnett-Legh, T., Curry, C. & Davie, E. Examining the LLAMA aptitude tests. Journal of the European Second Language Association 1, 49–60 (2017).
Brühl, B., Döpfner, M. & Lehmkuhl, G. Der Fremdbeurteilungsbogen für hyperkinetische Störungen (FBB-HKS) – Prävalenz hyperkinetischer Störungen im Elternurteil und psychometrische Kriterien. Kindheit und Entwicklung 9, 116–126 (2000).
Benjamini, Y. & Hochberg, Y. Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological) 57, 289–300 (1995).
Klingberg, T. et al. Computerized Training of Working Memory in Children With ADHD-A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 44, 177–186 (2005).
Beck, S., Hanson, C., Puffenberger, S., Benninger, K. & Benninger, W. A Controlled Trial of Working Memory Training for Children and Adolescents with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 39, 825–836 (2010).
Melby-Lervåg, M. & Hulme, C. Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology 49, 270–291 (2013).
Andreou, G., Agapitou, P. & Karapetsas, A. Verbal skills in children with ADHD. European Journal of Special Needs Education 20, 231–238 (2005).
Frazier, T., Youngstrom, E., Glutting, J. & Watkins, M. ADHD and Achievement. Journal of Learning Disabilities 40, 49–65 (2007).
Gualtieri, C. & Johnson, L. ADHD: Is objective diagnosis possible? Psychiatry (Edgmont) 2, 44–53 (2005).
August, G. & Garfinkel, B. Comorbidity of ADHD and reading disability among clinic-referred children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 18, 29–45 (1990).
Pennington, B., Groisser, D. & Welsh, M. Contrasting cognitive deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder versus reading disability. Developmental Psychology 29, 511–523 (1993).
Stern, E. & Neubauer, A. Intelligenz – Große Unterschiede und Ihre Folgen. (DVA, 2013).