How Ritalin Works in the Brain

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WEDNESDAY, April 1, 2020 — A new study dispels a common belief about how stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall work in the brain.
The drugs are usually prescribed to people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but are sometimes…

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ConclusionThe results suggest that lower CVA, i.e., reduced ANS flexibility, in adolescents with ADHD and controls is associated with self-reported ER difficulties, and specifically with limited access to effective ER strategies. There was a tendency for lower CVA to predict limited ER strategies only in the adolescents with ADHD and not controls.

AbstractBackgroundWhen children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with stimulant medication, the dose is established clinically by dose adjustment over time. Little is known about children who are not adequately treated when they reach a designated maximum dose, or the consequences of exceeding this dose.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of and side effects observed in children optimised to high dose (HD) versus regular dose (RD) stimulants.MethodChildren treated by one paediatrician (AP) in Western Sydney, Australia with HD stimulants (n = 52) …

Source: CNS DrugsCategory: Neurology Source Type: research

ConclusionSeverity and co-morbidity may be helpful factors in distinguishing between ADHD and BPD in clinical practice and the co-morbidity of these two disorders may indicate a worse clinical outcome.

Leucocyte common antigen-related protein (LAR) is a post-synaptic type I transmembrane receptor protein that is important for neuronal functionality and is genetically coupled to neuronal disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To understand the molecular function of LAR, structural and biochemical studies of protein fragments derived from the ectodomain of human LAR have been performed. The crystal structure of a fragment encompassing the first four FNIII domains (LARFN1 – 4) showed a characteristic L shape. SAXS data suggested limited flexibility within LARFN1 – 4, while rigid-body …

Source: Acta Crystallographica Section DCategory: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: leucocyte common antigen-related protein ectodomain protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor heparin binding synaptogenesis X-ray crystallography SAXS research papers Source Type: research

Abstract
Questions persist about whether attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder are in fact distinct from one another. When such questions arise, ODD is often suggested to be subsumed under one or the other condition. Modeling approaches that can evaluate whether specific subfactors can be distinguished from general psychopathology are of great interest, and the general bifactor model has been increasingly applied in studies evaluating the structure of psychopathology. However, evidence for bias in the model, the frequency of anomalous indicators,…

ConclusionsOur findings support the hypothesis that ADHD additionally diminishes inhibition ability in individuals with AUD. This may increase relapse risk when confronted with alcohol cues. Further, it is crucial for patients with comorbid AUD and ADHD to take into account not only reduced cognitive control over behavioral inhibition but also simultaneously heightened alcohol cue-reactivity.

ConclusionThe WURS and the ASRS both have high diagnostic accuracy. The short ASRS screener performed equally well as the full ASRS, whereas the WURS had the best discriminatory properties. The increased diagnostic accuracy may be due to the wider symptom range of the WURS and/or the retrospective childhood frame of symptoms.

Source: Brain and BehaviorCategory: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Parabens, which are used as a preservative in foods and personal care products, are detected in nearly 100% of human urine samples. Exposure to parabens is associated with DNA damage, male infertility, and endocrine disruption in adults, but the effects of prenatal exposure are unclear. In part, this is due to inadequate assessment of exposure in maternal urine, which may only reflect maternal rather than fetal exposure. To address this gap, we examined the association of prenatal methylparaben measured in meconium with preterm birth, gestational age, birthweight, maternal thyroid hormones, an…

Source: Environment InternationalCategory: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

AbstractSuccessful completion of daily activities relies on the ability to select the relevant features of the environment for memory and recall. Disruption to these processes can lead to various disorders, such as attention ‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine is a neurotransmitter implicated in the regulation of several processes, including attention. In addition to the higher‐order brain function, dopamine is implicated in the regulation of adult neurogenesis. Previously, we generated mice lacking Sha ti, an N‐acetyltransferase‐8‐like protein on a C57BL/6J genetic background (Shati/Nat8l−/&mi…

Source: Journal of NeurochemistryCategory: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

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