Imaging to examine brain architecture association with mood, attentional symptoms

0
40

(JAMA Network) Researchers looked at whether certain patterns of connectivity between specific regions of the brain in children at age 7 (measured by magnetic resonance imaging) were associated with later development of symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and major depressive disorder.

Related Links:

A 32-year-old child and adolescent psychiatry resident with a history of presenting an abstract at a local psychiatric conference during residency and fourth authorship on an immunotherapy paper from a summer internship during medical school presents with a new-onset desire to write a case report. She has just come off her consultation liaison rotation, during which she consulted on a 12-year-old boy with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, and low depressive state hospitalized for pseudoseizures, a new-onset inability to walk, and aggressive outb…

The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal…

Source: ScienceNOWCategory: Science Authors: Tags: Genetics, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

TUESDAY, Dec. 31, 2019 — Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures may be able to predict symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or major depressive disorder in children, according to a study published online…

Introduction: After a traumatic event, children and adolescents may present several clinical consequences, the most common being Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Most children and adolescents with PTSD have comorbid disorders, such Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, depression, attachment and anxiety disorders, sleep disturbances and behavior problems. However, epidemiological studies on the development of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents as a consequence of a terrorist attack and mass murder are lacking. Long-term follow-up of exposed children and adolescents will help identify…

Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi…

Conclusion: This study found that HIV-infected pubertal children showed a delayed cortical maturation with atrophy. This abnormal pattern of cortical development may be the structural basis for cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children.


Introduction
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related encephalopathy is one of the most serious complications of AIDS and is more common in children than in adults (1). At present, there are nearly 2 million children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world, almost all newly infected children are infected through mother-to-child transmission (2). Effec…

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that pathophysiological changes associated with ASD are more likely related to thalamocortical hyperconnectivity than to amygdala-cortical hypoconnectivity. Future studies should examine full sets of clinical and behavioral symptoms in combination with functional connectivity to explore possible biomarkers for ASD.IntroductionAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical social communication and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, or activities, both of which must be present in the early developmental period (1). Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli and unu…



Nicola Cellini1,2, Renee E. Shimizu3, Patrick M. Connolly3, Diana M. Armstrong4, Lexus T. Hernandez2, Anthony G. Polakiewicz3, Rolando Estrada3†, Mario Aguilar-Simon3, Michael P. Weisend4†, Sara C. Mednick2 and Stephen B. Simons3*

1Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
2Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States
3Teledyne Scientific &Imaging, Durham, NC, United States
4Rio Grande Neurosciences, Dayton, OH, United States

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) during sleep has been shown to successfully modula…

In this study, we compared the dynamic resting-state local and large-scale FC between PTSD patients (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC; n = 22; conducted as standard deviation in resting-state local and large-scale FC over a series of sliding windows). Local dynamic FC was examined by calculating the dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo), and large-scale dynamic FC (dFC) was investigated between regions with significant dReHo group differences. For the PTSD patients, we also investigated the relationship between symptom severity and dFC/dReHo. Our results showed that PTSD patients were characterized by I) increased dynamic (…

ConclusionsMicroparticles of aquaporin-4 represent subcellular arrangements that may influence the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and may serve as biomarkers for the underlying cellular disturbances. The increase of aquaporin-4 microparticles in cerebrospinal fluid may be used for early diagnostic purposes; for prevention; and for evaluation of effective treatment, long-term follow-up studies, and elucidating the pathophysiology in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Further studies of aquaporin-4 microparticles in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuromyelitis optica and similar neuropsyc…

Source link

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here