New guideline aims to transform evaluation and care of children and adolescents with ADHD

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(Wolters Kluwer Health) The Journal of Developmental&Behavioral Pediatrics is releasing a groundbreaking guideline for the diagnosis and care of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in children and youth in a supplement to its February 2020 issue.

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Publication date: Available online 15 May 2020Source: Journal of Psychiatric ResearchAuthor(s): Alexander Schneidt, Nina Maria Höhnle, Michael Schönenberg

CONCLUSIONS: Reported associations between in utero exposure to antidepressants and physical, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric outcomes, in large part, seem to be driven by the underlying maternal disorder. When limiting confounding by indication, prenatal exposure to antidepressants was significantly associated only with offspring BMI and affective disorders.
PMID: 32412703 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Another term is being added to the lexicon in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: quarantine brain. It takes many forms, from confusion and fogginess to limited executive functioning. Those who fall prey to it may find themselves unable to complete tasks, manage their time and routine, and make sound decisions. This occurs even if the person has no prior history with attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Some report a lack of motivation to get out of bed, let alone engage in their daily activities. What helps them is knowing that their boss, teachers, and family are counting on them to launch…

Source: World of PsychologyCategory: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Dreams Memory and Perception Personal Coping Skills coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic Resilience social distancing Source Type: blogs

AbstractTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising method for altering cortical excitability with clinical implications. It has been increasingly used in neurodevelopmental disorders, especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its efficacy (based on effect size calculations), safety, and stimulation parameters have not been systematically examined. In this systematic review, we aimed to (1) explore the effectiveness of tDCS on the clinical symptoms and neuropsychological deficits of ADHD patients, (2) evaluate the safety of tDCS application, especially in children with ADHD, (3) mode…

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the first genetic loci associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The next step is to use these results to increase our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved. Most of the identified variants likely influence gene regulation. The aim of the current study is to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the genetic signals and prioritize genes by integrating GWAS results with gene expression and DNA methylation (DNAm) levels.

Source: Biological PsychiatryCategory: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Although adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a higher risk of suicidality and more problems related to school bullying, and quality of life (QoL) is reportedly associated with school bullying, suicide, and ADHD, no study h…

Source: SafetyLitCategory: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news

Authors: Cormier E, Park H, Schluck G
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to assess the eMental health literacy of parents of preschool children and explore the relationships between their eMental health literacy skills and their knowledge of common child mental health disorders and their child difficulties. Online survey data were collected using Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Parents of preschool children completed questionnaires related to internet-based mental health information seeking behavior, knowledge of common child mental health disorders using case vignettes, and child difficulties. Data were analyzed using…

Conclusions
Saccadic performance differed between the two groups of parents, as those with children with ADHD showed a failure to withhold the initiation of responses in the absence of external control references (gap condition) on tasks with low cognitive load (prosaccadic). These anticipatory responses were related to inattention traits. Our results support the familial compound of ADHD as a multifactorial disorder.

Source: Psychiatric GeneticsCategory: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Although methylphenidate is frequently used to treat children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, it is currently unknown how methylphenidate affects brain development. In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated whether the cortical effects of methylphenidate are modulated by age.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Between June 1, 2011, and June 15, 2015, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Developing Brain-Methylphenidate) in 99 males with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual o…

Source: American Journal of NeuroradiologyCategory: Radiology Authors: Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

Conclusion: This diagnostic tool for ADHD based on DSM-5 has acceptable psychometric properties. The severity score will be useful for prognostication, monitoring treatment response, and designing intervention trials.

Source: Neurology IndiaCategory: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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