Probiotic Use and Safety in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Matched Cohort Study

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Of 78 076 infants, 3626 (4.6%) received probiotics. Probiotic use increased over the study period and varied among neonatal intensive care units. We matched 2178 infants exposed to probiotics to 33 807 without exposure. Probiotic administration was associated with a decrease in NEC (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.48-0.80) and death (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.70), an increase in Candida infection (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29-3.85), but no increase in bloodstream infection (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.05) or meningitis (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.40-3.46).

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