Relative Age and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Data From Three Epidemiological Cohorts and a Meta-analysis

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This article is based on data from the study “Pelotas Birth Cohort, 1993,” conducted by the Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology at Universidade Federal de Pelotas with the collaboration of the Brazilian Public Health Association (ABRASCO). From 2004 to 2013, the Wellcome Trust supported the 1993 birth cohort study. The European Union, National Support Program for Centers of Excellence (PRONEX), Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq), and Brazilian Ministry of Health supported previous phases of the study. This article is based on data from the study “Pelotas Birth Cohort, 2004,” conducted by the Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology at Universidade Federal de Pelotas, with the collaboration of ABRASCO. From 2009 to 2013, the Wellcome Trust supported the 2004 birth cohort study. The World Health Organization, PRONEX, CNPq, Brazilian Ministry of Health, and Children’s Pastorate supported previous phases of the study. The high-risk cohort was supported with grants from the National Institute of Development Psychiatric for Children and Adolescent (INPD) (FAPESP 2014/50917-0, CNPq 465550/2014-2, CAPES 001). The funding sources had no involvement in the planning, analysis, and reporting of the current study.

Disclosure: Dr. Bressan has received research grants from Janssen, Novartis, Roche, and governmental funding research agencies Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and FAPESP (2016/022465 and 2011/50740-5); has been a forum consultant for Janssen, Novartis, and Roche; and has participated in speaker bureaus for Ache, Janssen, Lundbeck, and Novartis. Drs. Barros, Matijasevich, and Santos have received support from the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq). Dr. Kieling has received grant or research support from Brazilian governmental research funding agencies (CNPq, CAPES, and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul [FAPERGS]) and United Kingdom funding agencies (MQ, Medical Research Council, and Academy of Medical Sciences). He has served on the editorial boards of Archives of Clinical Psychiatry, Global Mental Health, and Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria and on the international advisory board of the Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry. He has received authorship royalties from Artmed and Manole. Dr. Rohde has received grant or research support from, served as a consultant to, and served on the speakers’ bureau of Eli Lilly and Co., Janssen, Medice, Novartis, and Shire. The ADHD and Juvenile Bipolar Disorder Outpatient Programs chaired by Dr. Rohde have received unrestricted educational and research support from the following pharmaceutical companies: Eli Lilly and Co., Janssen, Shire, and Novartis. Dr. Rohde has received authorship royalties from Oxford Press and ArtMed and travel grants from Shire to participate in the 2018 American Psychological Association annual meeting and from Novartis to participate in the 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry annual meeting. Drs. Caye, Petresco, Gadelha, Gonçalves, Menezes, Miguel, Munhoz, Pan, and Salum and Mr. Manfro report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

©2019 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

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