Study bolsters link between prenatal nicotine exposure and ADHD

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(Reuters Health) – Pregnant women who have nicotine in their systems from smoking are more likely to have children who develop attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study suggests.

Source: Reuters: HealthCategory: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

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Children who were exposed to any amount of alcohol in the womb are more likely to be impulsive and diagnosed with separation anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder compared with children who were not exposed to alcohol in the womb, reports astudy inAJP in Advance.“To our knowledge, this is the largest examination of prenatal alcohol exposure and psychological, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preadolescence,” wrote Briana Lees, B.Psych., of the University of Sydney, Australia, and colleagues. The authors noted their study reaffirmed the man y risks of heavy drinking during pregnancy, but &ldquo…

Source: Psychiatr NewsCategory: Psychiatry Tags: ABCD study ajp in advance alcohol impulsivity oppositional defiant disorder pregnancy prenatal exposure separation anxiety Source Type: research

We examined the association between maternal hormonal contraception use before or during pregnancy and ADHD risk in children. This nationwide population-based cohort study included 1,056,846 children born in Denmark between 1998 and 2014. Prescriptions for hormonal contraceptives redeemed by the mother was categorized as: no use, previous use (>  3 months before pregnancy), and recent use (≤ 3 months before or during pregnancy). Children were followed for ADHD, from birth until 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interv…

We examined several parent-reported prenatal and postnatal factors as potential risk factors for attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology in 5-year-old children. Our study is based on the CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort. Several parental questionnaires were collected prenatally (32nd pregnancy week) and postnatally (i.e. child aged 3, 8, and 24 months and at 5 years). At 5 years of age, ADHD symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Our main results showed that being a boy, parental depressive symptoms, more negative family atmosphere or a child’s shorter sleep duration, and maternal au…

Source: Child Psychiatry and Human DevelopmentCategory: Child Development Authors: Tags: Child Psychiatry Hum Dev Source Type: research

This study is based on the Finnish Prenatal Study of ADHD with a nested case–control design. All the singleton children born in Finland between January 1998 and December 1999 and diagnosed with ADHD were included in the study. A total of 1026 cases were matched with an equal numb er of controls on sex, date of birth and place of birth. Maternal Vitamin B12 levels were assessed using a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay and archived from maternal serum banks, collected during the first and early second trimester of pregnancy. Lower maternal Vitamin B12 levels when an alyzed as a continuous variable was not as…

DiscussionThis umbrella review of associations between maternal prenatal use of analgesic drugs and children ’s neurodevelopmental disorders could allow for firmer conclusions to be drawn through the synthesis of all relevant published research. The synthesis of findings using high-quality evidence could provide more accurate healthcare information on the long-term effects of analgesic drugs on neurodeve lopment, to better guide future clinical decisions during pregnancy. This review will also allow gaps and methodological differences in the literature to be identified, informing recommendations for future research.S…

Source: Systematic ReviewsCategory: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

This study shed light on risk and protective factors associated with ASD in the Lebanese population. Further rigorous research, taking into consideration these factors, is needed to assist in early detection, prevention and subsequent intervention targeting ASD and its associated comorbidities, given that our study is not experimental and does not prove causality.

This article reviewed the results of 21 recent meta-analyses examining the relationship between maternal use of antidepressants during pregnancy and negative outcomes in newborns and children. PubMed was searched for meta-analyses published in English between January 1, 2011, and November 30, 2019, by using combinations of the keywords pregnancy, antidepressants, review, meta-analysis, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, neonatal outcomes, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), preterm birth, low bir…

AbstractThe epidemiology of mental disorders in early childhood is still under-researched. We aim to explore the incidence, comorbidities and risk factors of mental disorders in 0 –3-year-olds referred to hospital settings. In a national cohort of 918,280 children born in 1997–2010, we calculated incidence rates per 1,000 person-years (IR) of first-time mental and developmental disorders diagnosed in hospitals before four years of age. Data were obtained from Danish popul ation registries. We used logistic regression to analyse co-morbidity and Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the influence of pre- an…

Women who use cannabis while pregnant have an elevated risk of having children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to astudy published today inNature Medicine.“Children with prenatal cannabis exposure had an increase of 50% in the risk of an autism diagnosis over the study period, and these associations were robust after controlling for confounding,” wrote Daniel Corsi, Ph.D., of the University of Ottawa and colleagues.Corsi and colleagues analyzed the health outcomes of over 500,000 children born in Ontario between April 1, 2007, and March 31, 2012, by linking pregnancy data from Ontario ’s bi…

Source: Psychiatr NewsCategory: Psychiatry Tags: ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder autism spectrum disorder cannabis Daniel Corsi developmental risks substance use Source Type: research

Abstract
Early life predictors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are critically needed; they could inform etiological theory and may help identify new prevention targets. The current study examined prospectively whether maternal cytokine levels during pregnancy predict offspring ADHD symptoms at age 4-6 years. Secondarily, we evaluated maternal cytokine levels as a possible common pathway through which prenatal risks exert influence on child ADHD. Data came from a sample of women recruited during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy (N=62) and followed postnatally until children were 4-6 years old. Mate…

Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityCategory: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research

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