The DSM-5 Limited Prosocial Emotions Specifier for Conduct Disorder: Comorbid Problems, Prognosis, and Antecedents



 Research Participants and Procedure

The data used in this study come from the SOFIA-study (Social and Physical Development, Interventions and Adaption), an ongoing prospective longitudinal study aiming to advance knowledge on social adjustment, psychological well-being, and health. The SOFIA-study includes all children born between 2005 and 2007 attending preschools during the spring of 2010 (2,542 children) in a midsized (approximately 85,000 citizens) Swedish municipality. The demographics of the municipality are largely proportional to the rest of Sweden in terms of sex, age, level of education and employment, and the mixture of urban and rural areas. The 1st wave of data collection was conducted in 2010 (when the children were ages 3-5), the 2nd wave in 2011 (ages 4-6), the 3rd wave in 2012 (ages 5-7), the 4th wave in 2015 (ages 8–10), and the 5th wave in 2018 (ages 11-13). In total, 2,121 (85.7% of target population; 47% girls) of the children’s parents gave active consent to their child’s participation in the study. At wave 1 teacher- and/or parent-ratings were available for 2,113 (99.6%) and 2,008 (94.7%) of these 2,121 children, respectively. For the next waves these numbers (and percentages) were: Wave 2 = 2,014 (96.2%) and 1,929 (90.9%); wave 3 = 1,934 (91.2%) and 1,829 (86.2%); wave 4 = 1,829 (86.2%) and 1,654 (78%); and wave 5 = 1,735 (81.8%) and 1,420 (66.8%).

In this study, data from all but one waves were used. Specifically, wave 4 data were used for group assignment (classifications) and cross-sectional comparisons, whereas waves 1 and 2 data were used to test links between early childhood antecedents and wave 4 group assignments. Finally, wave 5 data were used to investigate the prognostic usefulness of the group assignments. Unless otherwise specified, data for 1,839 (86.7%) children were used for in the analyses. The 284 children that were not included in this study because data for group assignments were missing, were younger, from a higher SES, and less often from non-Swedish origin, but did not differ with regard to gender, and early childhood CP and CU traits (Supplement 2, available online). Details about the procedure and ethical approval can be retrieved from Supplement 3, available online.


For all measures, informants rated the items whilst considering the last six months. Unless otherwise specified, mean scores were calculated, and information from teacher and parents were combined to reflect the highest mean score from any informant.

 Measures for Group Assignments (Age 8-10)

Parents and teachers rated 10 conduct problem items that were closely based on DSM-IV criteria for ODD and CD, and were relevant to preschool children, and older children and adolescents.

  • Colins O.F.
  • Andershed H.
  • Frogner L.
  • Lopez-Romero L.
  • Veen V.
  • Andershed A.-K.
A New Measure to Assess Psychopathic Personality in Children: The Child Problematic Traits Inventory.