Unique’Signatures’ in Baby Teeth Identify Autism, ADHD Unique’Signatures’ in Baby Teeth Identify Autism, ADHD

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Metabolic”signatures” in baby teeth can distinguish ADHD from autism as well as cases in which both neurodevelopmental disorders are present, early research suggests.Medscape Medical News

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Preterm-born infants frequently suffer from an array of neurological damage, collectively termed encephalopathy of prematurity (EoP). They also have an increased risk of presenting with a neurodevelopmental disorder (e.g., autism spectrum disorder; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) later in life. It is hypothesized that it is the gray matter injury to the cortex, in addition to white matter injury, in EoP that is responsible for the altered behavior and cognition in these individuals. However, although it is established that gray matter injury occurs in infants following preterm birth, the exact nature of these cha…

Abstract
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a consistency mistake in Figure 1 legend. The legend for Figure 1 refers to “Non-ADHD/Non-ASD Concerns” instead of “Comparison,” which is the wording used in the text/tables, but that these terms are synonymous. The figure 1 with the correct legend is given below.
PMID: 32662051 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.

Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent PsychopharmacologyCategory: Pediatrics Authors: Source Type: research

Background: Knowledge is increasing about TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND), but little is known about the potentially confounding effects of intellectual ability (IA) on the rates of TAND across age, sex, and genotype. We evaluated TAND in (a) children vs. adults, (b) males vs. females, and (c) TSC1 vs. TSC2 mutations, after stratification for levels of IA, in a large, international cohort.Methods: Individuals of any age with a documented visit for TSC in the 12 months prior to enrolment were included. Frequency and percentages of baseline TAND manifestations were presented by categories of IA (no intellect…

Abstract
Oxidative stress is now believed to play a crucial role for neurodevelopment disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To review the most recent literature regarding the role of oxidative stress for the pathophysiology of ASD and ADHD, we conducted a systematic search of the relevant literature and further discuss the clinical and research implications of this knowledge. A systematic search in PubMed database retrieved 132 articles, of which 33 were included in the review. This review found relevant evidence concerning the role of oxidative stat…

Source: Acta Neurobiologiae ExperimentalisCategory: Neurology Authors: Tags: Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) Source Type: research

We report clinical and molecular data of a Lor family with 2 affected members presenting with severe intellectual disability, developmental delay, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A comprehensive genetic study that included whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense substitution (NM_001080:c.G1321A:p.G441R) in ALDH5A1 (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family Member A1) gene, consistent with clinical phenotype in the patients and co-segregating with the disease in the family. The non-synonymous mutation, p.G441R, affects a highly conserved amino acid residue, which is expected to cause a severe destabilization of…

Source: GeneCategory: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research

The objective of the present study was to apply the WISC-IV to clinical assessment of ASD and clarify how the characteristics of the disorder were reflected in specific items. Methods The study participants were 20 patients aged 5-16 years diagnosed with ASD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We recruited 20 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 20 patients with other disorders (neurotic disorders) as controls. We then compared the scores of the ninth item of the WISC-IV (“Comprehension”) among the three groups. Results The di…

Condition:   Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Neurodevelopmental Conditions, COVID-19 Intervention:   Sponsor:   King’s College London Recruiting

Abstract
We estimated the absolute and relative risk of sleep problems in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. This was a population-based cohort study of individuals born in Denmark in 1993-2014 and followed in nationwide registers in 2011-2016. We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of sleep problems in incident cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 12,844), autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 8,073), oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD; n = 2,234) and epilepsy (n = 3,709). Hazard ratios …

Source: Journal of Sleep ResearchCategory: Sleep Medicine Authors: Tags: J Sleep Res Source Type: research

AbstractPurpose of ReviewEmotion regulation is recognized as a core underlying dimension common across psychiatric disorders and could be conceptualized as a transdiagnostic feature (i.e., mechanism underlying comorbidity). This review highlights recent research examining emotion regulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Recent FindingsDifficulties with emotion regulation are increasingly recognized as common deficits in children with ADHD and ASD. Research indicates that emotion regulation transmits risk for co-occurring disorders within a diagnostic gro…

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