“The agriculture industry is consistently ranked as one of the most hazardous industries in the United States with some of the highest rates of work related injuries and deaths. Agriculture is a unique profession in that children who live on farms are exposed to, and in participate in, the family business of farming. Moreover, children who work on their family farm fall outside the regulation of governmental safety and labor practices….There is often little separation between work areas and play or living areas, thus children living on or visiting a farm may be in close proximity to safety hazards.
The rates of agriculture-related injuries are decreasing. Children have overall fewer injuries but their injuries are more severe. A study of 0-19 year olds with agricultural-related injuries from 2001-2006 found an annual incidence of ~26,600 injuries. Of these 29% were work-related, 0.32% were fatal (n=84), with falls (35.2%), machinery (3.7%), transportation (14.4%), assaults and self-harm (11.7%), and fire and explosions (0.63%) being the most common causes of injuries. Of the fatalities, machinery (21.4%), fire and explosions (14.2%), transportation (10.7%) and drowning (9.5%) were the most common causes. Boys report more exposure to potential hazards and are injured more than girls.
Farming is a heterogeneous industry and the activities vary widely. It is important to ask the family the type of farming they engage in when assessing the safety risk f…
This study aimed to evaluate the baseline sleep habits of children with ADHD and the effects of treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) on sleep parameters. Treatment naive children with clinically normal intelligence diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled in the study. Children were treated naturalistically with MPH and ATX. Treatments were started at 0.5 mg/ kg/ day and titrated weekly to a maximum of 1.2 mg/ kg/ day. The daily equivalent dose was calculated according to clinician toolkits of Utah Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. DSM-IV Based Screening and Assessment Scale for Disruptive Behavior…
BACKGROUND: Severe malocclusions appear in up to 20 per cent of the population. Many neuropsychiatric diseases are likely to have a neurodevelopmental, partially genetic background with their origins as early as fetal life. However, the possible relationship between neurodevelopmental disorders and severe malocclusions is unclear. The aim of this study was in a population-based setting (270 000 inhabitants) to investigate whether patients with severe malocclusions have more mental and behavioural disorders and growth or speech problems than controls without severe malocclusion.
MATERIAL AND M…
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) was first clinically described in 1943 by Martin-Bell and in 1969 Lubs found a fragility at the terminal end of the X chromosome. In 1991, three different research groups independently cloned the mutation for the FMR1 gene (Fragile X mental retardation type 1) which has a CGG triplet expansion. The FMR1 gene codes for the FMR protein which is a major regulator of synaptic plasticity and is expressed in the brain and spermatogonia mainly but many other tissues during fetal and early neonatal development. The number of triplets and methylation correlates with clinical expression (increased…
CONTEXT: In the absence of baseline testing, normative data may be used to interpret postconcussion scores on the clinical reaction-time test (RTclin). However, to provide normative data, we must understand the performance factors associated with baseline testing.
OBJECTIVE: To explore performance factors associated with baseline RTclin from among candidate variables representing demographics, medical and concussion history, self-reported symptoms, sleep, and sport-related features.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Clinical setting (eg, athletic training room).
PATIENTS OR OTHER…
As we get older, occasional forgetfulness may become more worrisome. Is this the start of dementia, or are we just stressed? Has the loss of structure due to retirement led to this change? Or could we be suffering from another illness, maybe the same illness as our son or granddaughter, who also struggle with attention and organization?
What are the symptoms of ADHD in older adults?
Although the diagnosis of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is often associated with school-age children, this condition may persist throughout adulthood and into old age. Older adults with ADHD struggle with attention, memory, an…
All large population-based administrative studies currently indicate a significant comorbidity of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with addictive, anxiety and in particular affective disorders. In these investigations the risk for one of these comorbid disorders increased with increasing age of the ADHD patients. The most recent genome-wide association and correlation studies also revealed indications for joint genetic risk factors of ADHD with, in particular unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome and to a lesser extent schizophrenia…
Life-style recommendations exist to benefit development and physical health. Their promotion comes at no harm and may have benefits for ADHD. Experimental evidence is needed to clarify the potential bidirectional relationship between ADHD and adverse health behaviors.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often comorbid with sleep disturbances can produce profound disruption in daily life and impact negatively on quality of life of both the child and family. However, the temporal relationship between ADHD and sleep impairment is unclear, as are underlying common brain mechanisms.
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine convened a panel of experts to provide an evidence-based, best practice document to assist sports medicine physicians and other members of the athletic care network with the detection, treatment, and prevention of mental health (MH) issues in competitive athletes. This statement discusses how members of the sports medicine team, including team physicians, athletic trainers, and MH providers, work together in providing comprehensive psychological care to athletes. It specifically addresses psychological factors in athletes including personality issues and the psyc…